Project Management

The application of general management discipline and a variety of specific techniques and software to the planning, management and completion of projects. Or, more simply, the art and science of introducing changes in the status quo.


The UK-based Association for Project Management has identified 40 key competencies that may be required for successful project management.

Foundation Competencies

  1. Systems management
  2. Programme Management
  3. Project management
  4. Project Life Cycle
  5. Project Environment
  6. Project Strategy
  7. Project Appraisal
  8. Project Success / Failure Criteria
  9. Integration
  10. Systems and procedures
  11. Close out
  12. Post Project Appraisal

Organisation and People

  1. Organisation Design
  2. Control and Co-ordination
  3. Communication
  4. Leadership
  5. Delegation
  6. Team Building
  7. Conflict management
  8. Negotiation
  9. Management development

Processes and Procedures

  1. Work Definition
  2. Planning
  3. Scheduling
  4. Estimating
  5. Cost control
  6. Performance Measurement
  7. Risk Analysis and measurement
  8. Value Management
  9. Change Control
  10. Mobilisation

General Management

  1. Operations and Technical Management
  2. Marketing and Sales
  3. Finance
  4. Information Technology
  5. Law
  6. Procurement
  7. Quality
  8. Safety
  9. Industrial Relations


For given types of project particular structures have sometimes emerged. Thus for a systems development

  1. Functional specification
  2. System specification
  3. Manpower Assessment
  4. Draft User' Manual
  5. Specification review and approval
  6. Establishment of document control system
  7. Baseline definition
  8. Establishment of change control system
  9. Decomposition into components
  10. Component review and approval
  11. Coding
  12. Testing
  13. Integration
  14. Integration testing
  15. Training
  16. Validation and Verification
  17. Implementation
  18. Maintenance

Various structured methodologies have been evolved to assist the project manager. Some are specific to particular organisations. One of these is PRINCE 2 (PRojects IN Controlled Environments) which was first developed in 1989 as a UK Government standard.

The project planning techniques in PRINCE are product-based which provides the team with a focus on deliverables rather than the mechanisms involved. PRINCE 2 is a process-based approach providing organisations with a tailorable method to fit existing organisation standards. PRINCE is owned by CCTA (Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency) which is an executive agency of the UK government. It is protected by Crown copyright.

IBM provides a PRINCE Environment application which incorporates the electronic, hypertext versions of some of the most popular material published for PRINCE and a range of templates and process flows based on PRINCE.

The Association of Project Managers (APM) is responsible for creating a professional, practitioner-level qualification in PRINCE and establishing a range of accredited training providers.

Modelling and Graphical Aids

On some projects it may be useful to construct mathematical models and graphical representations of a project. A GANNT chart shows the passage of time associated with different project elements as horizontal bars. It was first used by Scientific Management pioneer Henry Gannt in the early part of the 20th century. By the 1960s sophisticated mathematical models . (Program Evaluation and Review Technique and Critical Path Analysis of projects were developed which focused on resources and their interdependency. These helped to define the "Criutical Path" the critical sequence of activities that controlled the length of the project. These showing timescales, resources and the interdependency of the the various project elements


Asta PowerProject

ABT Project Workbench (in Chinese)

Primavera Suretrak & Primavera Project Planner

Professional Bodies

Professional Project Management Associations and institutes exist throughout the world.

Project Management Institute (PMI®) is a US-based organization for project management professionals. It has over 40,000 members.

The UK-based body is the Association for Project Management

85 Oxford Rd, High Wycombe, Bucks, England HP11 2DX

Tel: +44 14 94 44 00 90

Fax: +44 14 94 52 89 37 e-mail

The Association runs a certification scheme for projects managers and Special Interest Groups for a wide range of interests. There are branches throughout the UK as well as a Branch in Hong Kong. It has its own awards scheme and 'Body of Knowledge'.

The APM is linked to other nationally-based institutes (except PMI) through the IPMA - International Project Management Association.

The ProjectNet project management resource site is published by Project Manager Today magazine - the UK's leading project management monthly.

Time Standards

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